This was the first phase under the collaborative project between SEAFDEC/TD and DOF Thailand namely, Co-management in coastal fisheries management with application of the sufficiency economy philosophy to environmentally sustainable economic development.
First phase: the phase of preparation which SEAFDEC/TD responsible for conducting field survey on capacity of community and availability included a degree of community readiness assessment. The result of the survey and assessment will be analytically basic data and information to contribute both SEAFDEC/TD-DOF high-ranking officials making a decision on site selection for the project. The survey was conducted in three main areas are as following;
The Chief of the Chumphon Provincial Office of Fisheries and head of fisheries extension service kindly gave an information concerned fisheries development plan implementing for fisheries community. The provincial plan is focused on the Thungka-Sawee Bay area to promote sustainable coastal fisheries management and development friendly environment. This plan was submitted to the Chumphon Provincial Administrative Organization to support budget for the plan implementation. Now, the office is keeping waited for the budget approval and allocation.
Site survey and data collection
The survey and data collection was conducted at two villages of Bang Namjued Sub-district, Langsuan District. Ban Ko Phitak village and Ban Thongkroke village was studied sites. Ban Ko Phitak village has forty-two households in total and major occupation is capture fisheries. Ban Thong kroke village has hundred households and main occupation is agriculture combining with fisheries. This type of occupation is employed by villagers amounted to 70% of total households. At Ban Ko Phitak, sixteen households were as respondents of the interview. At Ban Thongkroke village, eighteen respondents were collected their data.
Issues of the two villages
The head of Ban Ko Phitak village described active activities of village development and plan to SEAFDEC staff. These activities are crab bank management, giant clam release, tree plantation from the mountain to the sea, water environmental control, and village central fish market. These activities have received contribution from government agencies likes Chumphon Marine Fisheries Research and Development Center to promote coastal fisheries management. The center supported the village to handle giant clam releasing into to the sea area of the village. This activity is encouraging the village’s vocation likes home stay and sea leisure. This vocation generates an income to fisheries households. A part of the income has been distributed to all villagers as incentive of cleaning village clean.
The head of Ban Thongkroke village said that his village never received any coastal resource management activities implemented by the Department of Fisheries. This is probably number of fisheries household is very low, but number of agriculture combining with fisheries household and agricultural households are larger number than fisheries households. Recently, fisheries household and agriculture and fisheries households are facing problem of fisheries resource deterioration, high price of fuel oil, low fish price and low catch. The village head has willingness to implement crab bank management activities to enhance crab resource in the sea.
Potential and role of women
Women of fisheries households at Ban Ko Phitak Village usually accompany her husband going for fishing. Elder women are hired to clean up fishing gear likes squid trap to get an income. Some of women handle work at home such as producing souvenir goods, cooking and managing home stay. The village head encourages women in the village to work in group to process fish cans with using their traditional cooking skill.
We visited Sriborya sub district which is island where was effected from the tsunami. This island is the southern part of Nua Klong District. Baan Klong Toh Village, the major occupation of this village is agriculture (rubber tree) and fishery. Since this village was affected by tsunami fishermen have been received the support from government such as fiber glass fishing boat and some financial support to fisher group for fishing gears. However, some fishermen also do aquaculture of grouper and seabass. Klong Toh has a fish sauce processing for woman group which has around 30 members. Since the head of woman group past away then the activities did not continue but they are still thinking continuation of the activities for woman group in the future.
The Ranong Provincial Officer gave us some general information of the fishery sector in Ranong province. The main problem of Ranong fishermen is trespass fishing in Myanmar border.
The Khon Ti Island or called Baan Khon Ti was introduced by the head of Muang fisheries district office. This village has fifty percent of people is fishermen which mainly are fish and shrimp gill net, crab trap and fish trap, and another half of people is employee in fishing activities and other occupations. About the woman group is not really active because of limited fisheries resources. It will be better if their housewife have an opportunity to train or have supplementary work during the day. Coastal small-scale fishing group just was established, so it still has not any fund.
Ratchagood Village was kindly introduced by the Ranong district officer. People are do agriculture and small-scale fisheries. This village has quite strong fisher group. The fisher group is quite strong which have around 20 members. The group has done many activities such as crab bank for fishery resource rehabilitation, brood cockle culture, green muscle culture and fish culture. The group was established for 3 years regarding to the leader of fisher group mentioned.
The survey and data collection was conducted at two villages of Haad San Chao Village and Mai Rood Village. Haad San Chao Village, people are mainly having a small-scale fisheries which several of small-scale fishing gears such as fish gill net, shrimp gill net, crab trap. Regarding to the survey this village most of fishermen are full-time fishermen because of the geographical of that area not suitable for any agriculture. For the role of women in this village, was introduced by fishermen that most of them be a housewife and regularly help and support her husband in fishing activities when the season comes. About the post harvest of the fishery product is very rare, it has just proceeded shrimp paste in some season which is not much as in the past. However, the village also receives some financial support from the provincial government for the fishermen who need investment particularly on the fishing gears.
Mai rood village was introduced by the Permanent Secretary of Or.Bor.Tor. Mairood after that the survey and data collection was implemented. Fishermen in this village have both capture and fish cage culture. The main type of fishing gears is shrimp gill net and trawl net. Aquaculture in this village is seabass culture. The feed for aquaculture is trash fish from fishing operation. Woman group is also not really active. Most of them prefer to work as a personal.
Finally, we visited mangrove forest at Baan Pred Nai. The Pred Nai Community Forestry Group is a community-based natural resource management program initiated by villagers in the mangrove forests. The Pred Nai Community Forestry Group has been working towards the sustainable use and restoration of the local mangrove forest. The major activity is that they have practiced the development of a forest management plan and restoration of formerly logged and degraded areas. Their conservative efforts have also had a direct impact on alleviating poverty and facilitating local economic development by producing forest products from the mangroves, and the establishment of a village savings fund to assist with social welfare and economic development initiatives. The restoration and conservation of mangrove forests also return positive impact to improve the long-term sustainability of the villagers’ household economic activities.
Phattareeya Suanrattanachai and Narumol Thapthim
Fishery Governance and Management System Section,
Coastal and Small-scale Fisheries Division, SEAFDEC/TD